Multiple enzymes are involved with β-Oxidation and the creation of saturated Acyl-CoA which enters the TCA cycle. It also generates 1 NADH, and 1FADH molecule. Reference: Eaton, S., Bartlett, K., Pourfarzam, M. (1996). Biochem. J. 320, 345-357

Fat Oxidation/β-Oxidation

β-Oxidation is a process in which fatty acids are oxidized.[1] It involves multiple enzymes, Acyl-CoA synthase, CPTI, CPT II, Acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, 2-Enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehyrogenases, 3-Oxoacyl-CoA thiolase.This process provides a major source of energy for the heart and for skeletal muscles. Hepatic β-Oxidation provides ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate) to peripheral circulation.[1] Ketone bodies are needed to fuel hepatic organs, like the brain, when blood glucose levels are low.Therefore β-Oxidation is stimulated when blood glucose levels are low, during starvation or during endurance exercise.[1] The main product of β-Oxidation is acetyl-CoA. β-Oxidation occurs in four main steps dehydrogenation, hydration, dehydrogenation, thiolitic cleavage.[2] During β-Oxidation 1 NADH+ and 1 FADH+ is generated for energy (NADH is worth 3ATP and FADH is 2ATP) per round. Furthermore, the generated acetyl-CoA will enter the TCA cycle.[2] Ultimately this would yield 3NADH+, 1FADH+ and 1GTP molecule.[1]Therefore β-Oxidation utilizes fatty acids to generate large amounts of ATP. The accumulation of Acyl-CoA will inhibit β-Oxidation. The process of β-Oxidation is illustrated in Figure 1.[1] Caffeine leads to an increase in lipolyisis therefore an increase in β-Oxidation, increasing the amount of ATP produced.

Example: Palmatate Fatty Acid (16:0)

The palmatate fatty acid chain under goes 7 rounds of β-Oxidation. This leads to a total of 35 molecules of ATP. In addition to
the 35 molecules of ATP. 8 acety-CoA molecules are generated and undergo the TCA cycle generating a total of 96 ATP. In total this produces a net total of 129 ATP per palmatate.[2]

Pathway 1
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Pathway 2
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  1. ^ Eaton, S., Bartlett, K., Pourfarzam, M. (1996). Biochem. J. 320, 345-357
  2. ^ MacDonald, Michelle. (2011). March 10th Lecture: Lipid Metabolism [PowerPoint].Learnlink